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发表于 2022-6-24 11:17 | 显示全部楼层 |阅读模式
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$ I) |8 k8 Z4 U: h7 i9 p( L) W有什么好的建议吗?, S$ b: z# Z& l# o% v

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 楼主| 发表于 2022-6-24 12:07 | 显示全部楼层
How to Stop Saying “Um,” “Ah,” and “You Know”8 l3 g, ]; q! S
by Noah Zandan
* M/ s) z5 J& \August 01, 2018
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3 h" T" }9 w8 p2 s" j3 f( @When you get rattled while speaking — whether you’re nervous, distracted, or at a loss for what comes next — it’s easy to lean on filler words, such as “um,” “ah,” or “you know.” These words can become crutches that diminish our credibility and distract from our message. To eliminate such words from your speech, replace them with pauses. To train yourself to do this, take these three steps. First, identify your crutch words and pair them with an action. Every time you catch yourself saying “like,” for example, tap your leg. Once you’ve become aware of your filler words as they try to escape your lips, begin forcing yourself to be silent. Finally, practice more than you think you should. The optimal ratio of preparation to performance is one hour of practice for every minute of presentation.close- Y* D' A; O9 U( j
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Um.2 X5 j! |% Y2 q1 F. A- @  ?

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You Know.& e( n& Z. [  g" \8 i
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Like.0 @7 }. l$ c& y
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Right?  B' o  Q- r0 c3 `9 c; }6 O

$ F1 L" Q6 B3 z6 j7 I$ O5 C- FWell.
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When we find ourselves rattled while speaking — whether we’re nervous, distracted, or at a loss for what comes next — it’s easy to lean on filler words. These may give us a moment to collect our thoughts before we press on, and in some cases, they may be useful indicators that the audience should pay special attention to what comes next. But when we start to overuse them, they become crutches — academics call them disfluencies — that diminish our credibility and distract from our message.
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Using research that incorporates behavioral science, AI, and data, the people science firm I run, Quantified Communications, determined that the optimum frequency is about one filler per minute, but the average speaker uses five fillers per minute — or, one every twelve seconds.* C! m/ |9 k( I% J2 A! v" j* p
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So let’s take a look at what the data tells us about crutch words: how they jeopardize a speaker’s impact and how we can eliminate them from our vocabularies.2 u6 k# r, k1 n& O) |
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The Trouble with Crutch Words- U" i. V5 p) z! n
We know it’s hard to pay attention to a speaker when every third word is a filler, but it can be difficult to pinpoint exactly how those verbal crutches are affecting our experience. We analyzed over 4,000 spoken communication samples in our database to identify how much speakers are relying on filler words and how those words are affecting the way their audiences perceive them. While we found that the excessive use of fillers can negatively influence audiences in many ways, three critical factors are significantly negatively correlated with too many fillers.8 z3 i8 K) j$ ~  Z
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To get your message across effectively, you have to keep your audience engaged. When you use excessive fillers, audiences are less likely to hang onto your every word because the fillers get in the way of the emotional stories or fascinating research you’re trying to share.
6 I. I0 N" L3 g2 t( V3 @Audiences want to believe that you are acting and speaking naturally — the way you might in a one-on-one conversation. While of course most people use fillers in casual conversation, when you bring them with you to the microphone, they distract from your core personality and make you sound nervous, distracted, or disengaged rather than authentic.
; H# V) i  Q( y; T2 x$ P8 QIf you want your audience to buy into your message, you have to make it clear, logical, and easy to follow. Unfortunately, filtering through crutch words to catch the important parts requires more cognitive effort than audiences are willing to put forth. So too many fillers will likely mean they’ll tune out in favor of an easier cognitive task —such as thinking about their to-do lists.3 B' r- z5 \! [8 r5 a& q4 c

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So why isn’t our speech fluent? Studies suggest that we verbalize hesitations because we’ve been conditioned to fill the void even when we don’t have something to say. For example, we use “um” and “ah” to hold onto the “conversational floor” as we are planning what we are going to say next, with “ah” signaling a short delay and “um” signaling a longer delay.
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. H  x. y! f0 i5 t: E( M: H' J8 c/ zTo Eliminate Crutch Words, Embrace the Pause
" ]0 {6 ]2 s2 zThe good news is that you can turn this weakness into a strength by replacing fillers with pauses.
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Research suggests that most conversational speech consists of short (0.20 seconds), medium (0.60 seconds), and long (over 1 second) pauses. Great public speakers often pause for two to three seconds or even longer. Our phonetic data shows that the average speaker only uses 3.5 pauses per minute, and that’s not enough.
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This is understandable. Pauses aren’t easy to embrace. For many speakers, even the briefest pause can feel like an interminable silence. That’s because we tend to think faster than we speak. According to our research, the average professional speaks at a rate of 150 words per minute. Yet, according to research from Missouri University, we think at 400 words per minute (and depending on who you ask, the rate may be as high as 1,500 words per minute)., H7 T3 m2 {8 u/ S$ \8 N  i) e( C

1 {8 r" E) X6 E7 K. X  SBecause of this discrepancy, when you’re giving a speech, your perception of time is often distorted, and what feels like an eternity in your mind is actually a few short seconds for the audience.6 T  ~. n6 ?% J# F/ y
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Despite how they may feel at first, well-placed pauses make you sound calm and collected, and they help three ways:; O, B( |9 t& `/ I) F4 z: O2 A/ o

( M3 A6 n" ]1 rCollect your thoughts: If you lose your train of thought, a pause gives you time to get back on track. As long as the pause isn’t too long (no more than five seconds), the audience won’t hold it against you.
& b3 y/ ~7 L9 o6 v4 Z, FCalm your nerves: Taking a pause before starting a speech is especially important for people with a fear of public speaking, as it helps calm nerves. The tactic is useful in the middle of a speech as well. If you find yourself getting flustered, pause briefly to take a deep breath (as long as it’s not audible or obvious) and reset.# ]0 j, Q& {& L% g1 u8 X7 G* t
Build suspense: Pauses aren’t always a defensive tactic. Strategically placed silence can build suspense, emphasize a point, or give the audience time to absorb a key insight.
+ _* ~" _. w! B7 W, i) ALike filler words, pauses give you a chance to take a break and figure out what comes next. However, a pause makes you sound confident and in control, whereas overused filler words are distracting and make you sound as if you don’t know what to say.
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Three Steps to Silencing Crutch Words
8 ~. N* w. f, D8 c3 m( U# Z& \The first step in changing any habit — whether it’s biting your nails or peppering every sentence with “you know” — is awareness. To identify your crutch words, videotape or review a transcript of your most recent talk, and determine what vocal fillers you rely on most. Once you’re aware of them, you’ll likely start to hear these words in your day-to-day communication. Pair your crutch words with small actions. Every time you catch yourself saying “like,” for example, tap your leg. Or have a family member or close friend monitor your filler words and bring your attention to them with a clap or snap.
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8 _6 r) v/ x, O& g0 r$ uNext, once you’ve become cognizant of your filler words as they try to escape your lips, begin forcing yourself to be silent. To practice, set up a video to record, and talk about what you did from the beginning to the end of the day. Practice using pauses instead of filler words as you recall the events.: {# F* z: C2 t3 Y# ^' V
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Finally, I can’t stress the importance of preparation enough. Nerves are one of the biggest reasons people overuse vocal fillers. The less prepared you are, the more nervous you’ll be, which will likely cause you to speak too quickly, trip over your words, and forget what’s next. So practice. On average, the optimal ratio of preparation to performance is one hour of practice for every minute of presentation, but at the very least, Dr. Trey Guinn, one of our communication experts, recommends speakers get in at least three full runs before stepping in front of an audience.
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, ^# J8 a7 a% \- ~1 {6 E6 J, CUsed sparingly and effectively, filler words can make you more relatable to your audience, give you time to catch your breath, and emphasize key points. That’s why Google built fillers into the latest version of its AI assistant, Duplex. But when they become crutch words, used out of nervousness or lack of preparation, they hurt your credibility. As you prepare for your next presentation, identify the words you lean on most, and train yourself to avoid them. Then, next time you’re in front of an audience, use silence to gather your thoughts, rather than filling the air with sound.
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 楼主| 发表于 2022-6-24 12:12 | 显示全部楼层
In this linked article, three steps are given to break the habit, 1, be aware, 2, break the habit, 3, pracitce in a formal setting.
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$ Y2 }( E1 e0 T* t1 x0 m1 Ohttps://virtualspeech.com/blog/h ... iller-words-3-steps
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 楼主| 发表于 2022-6-24 12:20 | 显示全部楼层
这篇文章不错,抄了过来& e. D2 C8 _0 {! }5 o% O
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Purpose of Filler Words
% @3 A: W# e! Y3 r, lScience has an answer on why we fall into the habit of using filler words. We use these words as a verbal place holder when we are thinking — while communicating. They are a verbal representation of our thinking and an indication to our listener that we are not yet done communicating. They are a signal that what we are saying is getting ahead of what we are thinking. These words are irrelevant transitory words used to give us time to think of the ‘right’ word or phrase we want to say next.
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Eliminating Filler Words: n; b7 Y# _8 ?8 k6 w
There are a variety of ways we can practice to minimize (or optimally eliminate) our use of filler words. To be clear, filler words are not a big deal if they are infrequent in nature. Most listeners will expect a few um’s, and ah’s even in a formal presentation. The issue is only problematic when it becomes a consistent misuse of the nonsense words. For anyone struggling with frequent use of these words the following exercises can help.
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+ m+ P, H  r" M) S- w4 W0 R2 Z& o  VRelax & Center Yourself
! Y2 `1 \. |: P6 hWhen we get into a nervous or anxious state of mind we see an increase in the number of filler words. Beginning public speakers will often utter volumes of these non-words which hurts the reception of our message. Instead we should work to change our state of mind while communicating and this will reduce our use of these non-words and improve the efficacy of our message. We can get in a calm, relaxed state of mind with visualization, progressive relaxation, meditation and deep diaphragmatic breathing. These practices should be a part of your speech preparation while practicing your speeches as well as before you give a speech.
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% q! D; {. \: F' Y% ?% S" lPractice is a great way to build your confidence and improve your delivery. Additionally, practicing your speech will definitively reduce your use of filler words. When we are prepared for any communications scenario we are more focused and effective in our deliver. Our practice should include the techniques we detailed herein to cement these positive habits in our repertoire of skills. Practice is absolutely critical part of ridding these filler words from our public speaking delivery.
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  Z. B( F- x6 a1 t8 bA better habit than abuse/overuse of filler words is to allow yourself to pause. Doing so will allow you to think about what you will say next without filling the space with words that don’t serve your communication. Pause, then construct what you are going to say internally before you open your mouth. Many beginning speakers needlessly find pausing a nerve wracking experience. A pause of silence allows us to think of what we’ll say next, stay centered and focused on the accuracy and effectiveness of our communication./ _2 V  H$ Q4 G+ i! g) x- T

4 ^! m3 b3 a9 t& w+ q* E1 V9 v8 wSlow Down2 l% g0 F4 s: L6 Y/ D7 x/ V
When dealing with glossophobia or the fear of public speaking, most beginning speakers have a wide variety of physiological/psychological symptoms. Specifically, in terms of the voice and content, when feeling anxious, we often speak more quickly and see an overabundance of filler words. Speaking at a less hurried pace alongside these other techniques will help minimize your use of these meaningless words. Practice slowing down and you’ll notice the difference.
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Record Yourself4 u7 Z; W- G! x. f9 Y4 j
A great way to develop a sense of awareness of filler words is to record yourself. Today we have laptops, tablets and smartphone all of which allow us to record ourselves. With any important speech you should practice and record it at least 3-5 times. After each attempt, review your recording and count how often you used filler words. Note the number of filler words and then run through your speech again with an effort to relax, center yourself, and use pauses or words that serve your communication instead. Remember to slow down and be mindful of your word choice. After some practice you’ll see improvement.
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- P. m5 w1 W6 Q4 H# @7 y4 N* lIdentify Your Nemesis" k, ^( Y7 {* N! r
Everyone has their own filler word nemesis. For some it might be a few misplaced ‘um’s’ or ‘ahh’s’ and others it might be a consistent overuse of a tired phrase. As you listen to your recorded sessions (audio or video) take note of what filler words you use and their frequency. Knowing your habits is a first step in a rising self-awareness that will bring freedom from these poor habits.
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6 j; j- A) i' w8 P2 |$ y9 G: W9 g4 iDevelop Awareness
/ `! x  Y- x7 ^2 w$ d5 f' jAll of these practices should rise in you a sense of awareness of your speaking habits. You will arrive at a place where you are more aware of your ability to choose not litter your speech with these meaningless words. You’ll be more focused and present in your deliver so these words will become a rarity in your speech. Awareness will come in time with practice of these methods.
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Accept Imperfection+ j1 l) j" [- W+ ~* M# e
Perfectionism is the enemy of success & personal growth. When we learn to live with a more realistic vision and understanding of ourselves as fallible but eternally capable – success is much easier. We understand a few filler words here and there are not the end of the world. Perfection should be no one’s goal because it doesn’t exist. Realistically, we should aim to minimize (if not eliminate) these filler words from our communications repertoire.! ]( r6 D" v9 G

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We often tend to be our own worst enemy when it comes to overcoming personal obstacles like filler word. Use a truism of behavior modification to help shape your use of filler words for the better. Put in place a reward that you’ll give yourself when you deliver a speech with a dramatic reduction (or even elimination) of filler words. Do something nice for yourself, go see that favorite band, buy that favorite shirt or even just take some ‘me’ time. Simply come up with a way you will reward yourself for your efforts and you’ll see results.
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" S, }; a: Y% S' GPositive Habit7 b' }7 H  ^1 M0 i+ d
The use of filler words is a pervasive bad habit. Why not instead start to create a positive habit that serves your success as a speaker? Starting a new habit is never easy but with these many options I’ve included in this post you’ll have a myriad of ways to begin. Start today to create the new habit you’d like to define your speaking and leadership capacities that will define your bright future. You shape your own habits, choose them with intention. Practice them and discard those that don’t serve you.# T$ b+ m1 x# ^7 n0 v* Y5 F

5 y  z2 ~+ y. ?( {; ^Um, O.K.‽ Does this, like make sense? 😜 I hope you’ll explore these methods to minimize your use of this imprecise language. But remember, it’s not perfection we seek on any learning journey but progress. Let us know how it goes in your comments below. Comments or questions, feel free to leave them below or contact us.
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